Literary Links

November/December 2000


Good News and Announcements

Literary Liaisons, Ltd. is pleased to announce its newest award!  The Preditors and Editors web site has named us their Truly Useful Site for October 2000.  You can see the award on our index page.  We hope you find this site truly useful also.  Be sure and visit Preditors and Editors for more useful writing information.

Favorite Book of the Year--Don't forget to vote for your favorite romance book of 2000. See the Members Only section at the RWA National web site for details.

RWA Pro--RWA National has adopted a special program to recognize unpublished members.  For more information, see the RWA National web site.

Golden Heart and RITA Awards--Are you going to judge the Golden Heart or RITA entries? Sign up online at RWA National web site.


New On Literary Liaisons

There are many new additions to Literary Liaisons. After reading about them below, check them out on the web site.



Civil War Curiosities: Strange Stories, Oddities, Events and Coincidences by Webb Garrison

Fiction Writer's Brainstormer by James V. Smith, Jr.

Josephine: A Life of the Empress by Carolly Erickson

The Key: How to Write Damn Good Fiction Using the Power of Myth by James N. Frey

More Civil War Curiosities by Webb Garrison

Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages by Phyllis Rose

The Writer's Digest Flip Dictionary by Barbara Ann Kipfer


Featured Title

Building Better Plots by Robert Kernen

RWA Chapters On-line

Aloha Chapter

Coeur de Louisiane

From the Heart (On-line)

Northern Star RWA (Edmonton)


SpacecoasT Authors of Romance

Ventura Area Romance Authors


Researching the Romance

Civil War Curiosities: Strange Stories, Oddities, Events and Coincidences by Webb Garrison

Fiction Writer's Brainstormer by James V. Smith, Jr.

Josephine: A Life of the Empress by Carolly Erickson

The Key: How to Write Damn Good Fiction Using the Power of Myth by James N. Frey

More Civil War Curiosities by Webb Garrison

Parallel Lives: Five Victorian Marriages by Phyllis Rose

The Writer's Digest Flip Dictionary by Barbara Ann Kipfer



Writers' Resources Online


Common Errors in English

Librarian's Index to the Internet

Poetry and Music of the War Between the States

Queen Victoria: A Biography

The Regency Neckcloth

Rules for Inheritance and Titles of Nobility

Scottish Highlands and Islands



Feature Article 

MANNERS FOR MEN--Part Two--Courtship and Marriage

by Michelle Hoppe

I have heard it said that a title does not make a gentleman, but rather his manners. Truthfully, any titled male is a gentleman, but that does not necessarily means he acts appropriately. And there are those of the lowest birth who are the truest of gentlemen.

So what exactly is a gentleman?

A true gentleman is true to himself, is of moral strength and is thoughtful of others. He regards the rights and feelings of others, sometimes at his own expense. So how does this translate into manners? We saw the early part of his life in Part One of this article.  Let's follow him into courtship and marriage....


Perhaps the most important time in a man's life for him to exhibit proper behavior is when he is courting a young woman.  This is his opportunity to impress both the girl and her family.  He must take care not to do or say anything that would harm his chances for marriage, if in fact, that is what he wants. 

During the early stages of a gentleman's adulthood, he is free to socialize with young ladies and invite them to parties and outings.  He need not center his attention on any lady in particular.  It is only when he is serious about a young lady and contemplating marriage that he should single out her attention.     

Likewise, it is injudicious of a gentleman to make a proposal after too brief an acquaintance.  There should be thorough knowledge of the young lady before matrimony is ventured upon.  If during courtship he discovers they are not suited for each other, he can withdraw his attention as long as no promise binds them.  If, however, he decides upon marriage, he should not seek out the attention of other women.  His attentions must now be centered upon the woman he chooses as his wife.

A gentleman should defer to the lady's feelings, as well as her family's, when offering his hand in marriage.  He should not propose to a girl if she or the family opposes the union.  And neither would a gentleman carry on a clandestine courtship behind the family's back.

It is preferable that a gentleman propose in person.  If the lady turns him down, he may ask her again, for her feelings may change.  But he should never press the issue past two or three attempts.  If the lady agrees to marry him, he should seek out her father or nearest friend to ask approval.  If the father does not agree to the union, the gentleman must respect his decision and rescind his offer of marriage. He should never allow a lady to enter into a union of which her father doesn't approve.

Once an agreement is reached, the gentleman buys the lady an engagement ring.  It should be as handsome a present as he can afford.  Once they are engaged, he is duty bound to spend most of his leisure time with her.

No man should drag a girl into a long engagement, but neither should he propose until he is prepared to provide for her.  He should not assume a masterful or jealous air during their betrothal.  Trust and confidence should guide his actions. 

A lady should not be too demonstrative of her affection during the engagement.  Nor should the gentleman pressure her into any such demonstration, lest by some chance he does not become her husband.  It would harm her reputation.  A gentleman's demeanor remains respectful and decorous throughout their engagement.

A gentleman should never break an engagement.  However, if the lady wishes it, he must comply with her decision with dignity.  All gifts, letters and portraits should be returned to the giver in this instance.


This part of the courtship is an article in and of itself as far as manners and dress.  For more detail, see the articles on Victorian Weddings.  (Links below)


A gentleman should provide a furnished home for his wife in which to start their future together.  His constant duty to his wife is to be ever kind and attentive, even sacrificing his own personal comfort for her happiness.  His evenings and spare moments should be devoted to her.

Business should not exclude attentions due to wife and family, although a proper husband should keep his wife informed of his business affairs.  She may be able to give him valuable advice.

In household matters, he defers to his wife.  But it is his duty to accompany her to church, to social gatherings, to lectures and other places of entertainment.  He should not go to a social gathering or entertainment at night without her.  In addition, if a place is not fit for his wife, is it not fit for him.

A gentleman should give his wife perfect confidence, and trust implicitly in her honor at all times and in all places.  He should remain faithful and constant to her, and give her no cause for complaint. 

To summarize a gentleman's behavior, I leave you with this quote from Etiquette: Rules & Usages of the Best Society.

"The husband, in fact, should act towards his wife as becomes a perfect gentleman, regarding her as the 'best lady in the land,' to whom, above all other earthly beings, he owes paramount allegiance."

Would we ask for anything more?

Previous Issue: Manners For Men--Part One--As a Single Man


Manners for Men by Mrs. Humphry, a facsimile reproduction of an 1897 publication. Reprinted by Pryor Publications, Kent, England,1993.

Etiquette: Rules & Usages of the Best Society, reprinted by the Promotional Reprint Company, Ltd., Leicester, 1995.

Similar books are available for purchase in our on-line bookstore in the non-fiction section.

Also see the Researching the Romance page of Literary Liaisons for more suggestions.

Editor's Note

It's hard to believe we have been on-line for over three years--and without much change in the design at Literary Liaisons.  So I've started an overhaul of the pages.  Don't worry.  The only services that have been removed are web design.  All other pages will remain intact, but possibly with a different look.  We're also in the process of finding a new home.  So if you encounter any difficulties in logging onto these pages, please be patient.  It may take a while to transfer all the files correctly.  Once we have moved, I will have an easier method of subscribing and unsubscribing from the newsletter.  To manage the mailing list more efficiently, we are moving the list to eGroups.  If you have an account there already, you're all set.  If you don't, you just have to go to, sign on, select a password, and you'll be able to edit your name, e-mail address, etc., so you won't miss an issue of Literary Links.  Our newsletter mailing list at eGroups is "LiteraryLiaisonsNewsletter".  Please note that this listserve is FOR THE SOLE PURPOSE OF MAILING OUT THE NEWSLETTER.  We are all inundated with e-mail.  No one will be able to post to the list except me.  And I will only use it to mail out the newsletter.  You will only receive a mailing from me every two months.  So please don't get scared away by another Listserve.  I'm using it to better manage my mailing list, not to send you propaganda or useless information. We will also be adding a guestbook to the pages soon.  Please feel free to stop in and sign the book, or see what others have to say.  I hope you will stay with the Literary Liaisons family as we grow and change..  

---Michelle Hoppe


Q&A Column

Q:  Dear Madam, Where can I find on the net a complete list of forthcoming titles for the next few months of romance fiction.

 Regards jan 

A:  Jan--

Here are a few suggestions to get you started:

Romantic Times Magazine Online has a list of the current month's releases with reviews.  Their web site is:

Romance Writers of America has a section for readers, and lists releases for the last year, as well as for the next 1-2 months.  Their web site is:  Click on the Readers link.

Another comprehensive list is from The Romance Reader. Here is a link to their site:

These lists are only as complete as the information they receive from authors and publishers.

For a comprehensive list of ALL releases, your best bet is Books In Print. ( However, this site carries a hefty $1850.00 fee for an annual subscription. Something your library carries for free.


Historical Calendar of Events


Andrew Bonar Law--British statesman

Theodore Roosevelt--26th President of the United States

Sir Frank Benson--English actor-manager

Joseph Kainz--German actor

Selma Lagerlof--Swedish novelist and Nobel Prize winner

Lovis Corinth--German painter

Giovanni Segantini--Italian painter

Heinrich Zille--Berlin cartoonist

Ruggiero Leoncavallo--Italian opera composer

Giacomo Puccini--Italian opera composer

Rudolf Diesel--German automotive engineer

Max Planck--German physicist

Beatrice Webb--English socialist writer and politician



Ando Hiroshige--Japanese painter

Robert Owen--English social reformer


Felix Orsini attempts to assassinate Napoleon III.

Lord Derby becomes British Prime Minister.

Minnesota becomes the 32nd State of the Union.

Ottawa becomes the capital of Canada.

The Treaty of Tientsin ends the Anglo-China War.

The powers of the East India Company are transferred to the British Crown.

Prince Wilhelm of Prussia is declared regent for the insane King Frederick Wilhelm IV on October 7.

Alexander Karageorgevich is deposed by the Serbian Diet and Milos Obrenovic is declared king.

Lionel de Rothschild becomes the first Jewish member of British Parliament.

The Lincoln-Douglas debates were held in Illinois Aug. 21-Oct. 15.

The Texas socialist community La Reunion is abandoned by its followers, who move to nearby Dallas.

A fugitive slave in Ohio is rescued by Oberlin College students and one of their professors. 

Russia’s Aleksandr II begins emancipating the nation’s serfs.

Britain imposes legal trade in opium on China; by 1900, 90 million Chinese will be addicted.

Britain’s Princess Royal (age 18) is married January 25 to Prussia’s Prince Frederich Wilhelm.   

Napoleon meets secretly with Count Cavour at Plombières July 10, and agrees to join Piedmont in a war against Austria.


The Arts

"Derby Day" by English painter William Powell Frith

"Bon soir, Messieurs" by Menzel

"Eight Bells" by U.S. painter Winslow Homer


Anatomy of the Human Body, Descriptive and Surgical by London physician Henry Gray

The Theory of the Vertebrate Skulls by English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley


Dr. Thorne by Anthony Trollope

"The Defence of Guenevere" by William Morris

"The Courtship of Miles Standish" by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow

"The Deacon’s Masterpiece" by Oliver Wendell Holmes 

"The Chambered Nautilus" by Oliver Wendell Holmes 

"Legends and Lyrics" by Adelaide Ann Procter

"Jessie Brown, or The Relief of Lucknow" by Dion Boucicault premieresFebruary 22 at Wallack’s Theater, New York

"Foul Play" by Charles Reade and Dion Boucicault premieres May 28 at London’s Adelphi Theatre

"Our American Cousin" by Tom Taylor premieres October 18at Laura Keene’s Theater, New York


"Der Barbier von Bagdad" by Weimar

"Orphee aux enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld)" by Offenbach premieres in Paris on October 21 at the Bouffes Parisiens, Paris. The opera introduces “Le Cancan,” a new dance.

Popular songs:

"The Yellow Rose of Texas" with music by a U.S. composer identified only as “JK”

"The Old Grey Mare" by U.S. songwriter J. Warner

At the wedding of the Princess Royal, Mendelssohn's "Wedding March" from A Midsummer Night’s Dream music and the Wagner "Wedding March”" from the opera Lohengrin are played, beginning a tradition that will endure for weddings of royalty, nobility, and commoners in much of the world.

The New York Symphony gives its first public concert.


Daily Life
The Blessed Virgin Mary is reputed to have appeared to Bernadette Soubirous at Lourdes, France.

American Catholic priest, Isaac Hecker, founds the Paulist Fathers.

The National Association of Baseball Players is organized in America.

The first meeting of the General Medical Council is held in London.

Grenada in the Caribbean produces its first crop of nutmeg and mace to begin the island’s career as the world’s leading producer of those spices.

The Territorial Enterprise begins publication at Mormon Station in the Territory of Western Utah.

The pen name “Artemus Ward” appears in the 17-year-old Cleveland Plain Dealer.

Street & Smith Publications, Inc., has its beginnings in the New York Weekly published by bookkeeper Francis S. Street and reporter Francis Shubael Smith. By 1861 their Weekly will have a circulation of 100,000.

Rowland Hussey Macy opens the R. H. Macy Company October 27 with an 11-foot storefront on New York’s 14th Street.

Iowa State College is founded at Ames.

Oregon State University is founded at Corvallis.

New York’s Central Park opens to the public in the autumn although it remains 5 years short of completion.

Denver is founded in Kansas Territory that will become Colorado. The town is named in honor of Kansas Territory governor James W. Denver.



Charles Barry designs the third Covent Garden Opera House in London.

The rebuilding of the Ringstrasse begins in Vienna.

Richard Burton and John Speke discover Lake Tanganyika and Lake Victoria Nyanza.

Joseph Lister studies the coagulation of blood.

William Thomson, later Lord Kelvin, invents the mirror galvanometer.

The Suez Canal Company is formed.

The South Foreland lighthouse is lit by electricity.

The S.S. "Great Eastern" is launched--the largest ship of her time.

Boston begins filling in its Back Bay. By 1882 the entire area will be filled to create land on which Commonwealth Avenue, Copley Square, and much of modern Boston will stand.

Big Ben begins chiming out the hours, half-hours, and quarter-hours in the 316-foot tall clock tower of London’s Westminster Palace opened by Queen Victoria in 1852. It is named for Sir Benjamin Hall, Baron Llanover, who is chief commissioner of works.

The first Atlantic cable is completed by Cyrus W. Field Aug. 5, but fails Sept. 1.

Queen Victoria and President Buchanan exchange messages August 16 over the first transatlantic cable.

A placer gold strike in the eastern Colorado region of Kansas Territory 90 miles from Pike’s Peak begins a new gold rush to Cherry Creek.

A gold rush to British Columbia begins in February following the arrival at San Francisco of a ship carrying nuggets found on the Fraser River.

American Bank Note Co. is created at New York by a merger of the seven independent engraving-printing firms that have printed U.S. paper currency since the Revolution. The company will print U.S. currency until 1879, U.S. postage stamps until 1894, and currency and stamps for scores of foreign nations thereafter.

Isaac M. Singer offers sewing machine inventor Walter Hunt $50,000 in five annual payments to clear up any possible patent claims.

English dressmaker Charles Frederick Worth, 36, opens a Paris shop on the rue de la Paix and establishes the first house of haute couture. Instead of catering to the whims of his customers, he will create his own designs and offer them to patrons. By the 1880s the House of Worth will be the authority in fashion, supplying gowns to every royal court in Europe. 

French inventor Ferdinand P. A. Carré devises the first mechanical refrigerator.

The Mason jar is patented by New York metalworker John Landis Mason.

New York Condensed Milk Co. is established by Gail Borden.

London’s meat becomes fatter and juicier as the Smithfield market receives rail shipments of ready-dressed carcasses from Aberdeen 515 miles away.

Schweppe’s Tonic Water has its beginnings in “an improved liquid known as quinine tonic water” patented at London. 

London’s Linnaean Society hears a paper on the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence in nature presented by English naturalists Alfred Russel Wallace and Charles Darwin.

The McKay machine invented by South Abingdon, Mass., shoemaker Lyman Reed Blake, permits production of low-cost shoes by eliminating the heavy work of hand sewing.

London tobacco merchant Philip Morris opens a cigarette factory using mostly smoke-cured Latakia leaf from Turkey.

The Overland Mail stage reaches St. Louis October 9 after 23 days and 4 hours on its first trip from San Francisco. A westbound stage that has left at the same time reaches San Francisco October 10 after 24 days, 20 hours, 35 minutes.

The first practical sleeping car is perfected for the Chicago & Alton Railroad by Brocton, N.Y., cabinetmaker George Mortimer Pullman, whose retractable upper berth doubles the sleeping car’s payload .

“Commodore” van Derbilt sells his New York-to-California shipping line to rivals who will operate via Panama rather than Nicaragua.

London’s Chelsea Bridge is completed across the Thames. Tolls will be collected until 1879 and the bridge will be rebuilt in the 1930s.



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