ON THIS DAY--JUNE
(Copyright 2004, Literary Liaisons, Ltd. DO NOT REPRODUCE or distribute without permission.)
For a more comprehensive list, including a Year by Year timeline, see our Research Guide.
1st. . .
became the 15th state of the Union.
Francis Lyte, English clergyman who wrote the hymn 'Abide With Me', born.
became the 16th state of the Union.
Young, U.S. Mormon leader, born.
Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, died.
Gillray, English caricaturist of politicians of the day, died.
magnetic North Pole was located by Sir James Clark Ross on his Arctic
exploration expedition with Admiral Perry.
Pujol, 'Le Petomane', performer at the Moulin Rouge, born.
Buchanan, 15th U.S. President, died.
first Pullman cars in Britain were introduced on the Midland railway on the
London to Bradford route.
Louis Napoleon, Prince Imperial of France who escaped to England, was killed in
the Zulu Campaign in South Africa.
2nd. . .
Sobieksi III, King of Poland and warrior, born.
Donatien de Sade, Marquis de Sade, French writer of Justine
and 'sadist' (the term derived from his name), born.
George Gordon led the 'Gordon Riots' in protest at the ending of penalties
against Roman Catholics.
Henry Corliss, American engineer and inventor, born.
Hardy, English novelist of Tess of the
Jesse Boot, 1st Baron Trent, founder of a pharmaceutical manufacturing and
retailing operation that bears his name, born.
Edward Elgar, English composer, born.
Trades Union Congress was first held in Manchester.
Garibaldi, Italian nationalist leader, died.
3rd. . .
Henry, court physician to James I and Charles I, died.
Duke of York defeated the Dutch Fleet off the coast of Lowestoft.
Hutton, Scottish physician and geologist who wrote Theory
of the Earth, born.
Cobden, English political reformer and Liberal politician who fought to repeal
the Corn Laws, born.
Davis, president of the Confederate States of America, born.
Hippodrome opened in London's Bayswater to run steeplechase horse races.
Martin, English religious extremist who set fire to York Minster, died in an
William Matthew Flinders Petrie, English Egyptologist, born.
Bizet, French composer of the opera Carmen,
Strauss the Younger, Austrian composer of The
Blue Danube, died.
4th. . .
II, King of England from 1760, born.
Casanova, Italian romantic, author and librarian at the castle of Waldstein in
first Trooping the Colour ceremony took place at the Horse Guards Parade,
Foster, U.S. composer of popular minstrel songs including 'Swanee River', born.
Leopold became the first King of Belgium.
last known specimen of the garefowl, the great auk, was killed on the Stack of
Eldey off Iceland.
St. Leger Kingsley, English novelist who wrote under the pseudonym 'Lucas Malet',
and daughter of writer Charles Kingsley, born.
French under Napoleon III defeated the Austrians at the Battle of Magenta in the
Carl von Mannerheim, Finnish military commander, born.
5th. . .
Boniface, English missionary who went to Germany to establish Christianity, was
murdered by unbelievers.
Smith, Scottish political economist who wrote The
Wealth of Nations, born.
first ascent in a hot-air balloon, which was made by the French Montgolfier
brothers, lasted ten minutes.
Couch Adams, English mathematician and astronomer who discovered the planet
Maria Friedrich Ernst, Baron von Weber, German composer, died in London.
first chapter of Uncle Tom's Cabin, by
Harriet Beecher Stowe, appeared in the National
Pancho Villa, Mexican revolutionary, born.
6th. . .
Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez, Spanish painter who became court painter to
Philip IV, baptized on this day.
Corneille, French playwright of Le Cid,
first public museum, the Ashmolean, was opened by Elias Ashmole in Oxford. Visitors were charged for the length of stay.
first title fight took place in London between James Figg and Ned Sutton who was
Hale, American revolutionary who spied on the British and was caught, born.
Pushkin, Russian poet, novelist and playwright, born.
Williams founded the YMCA at 72 St. Paul's Churchyard, London.
Camillo Benso di Cavour, Italian statesman, died.
Mann, German novelist of Death in Venice,
7th. . .
the Bruce, who seized the throne to become King of Scotland, died of leprosy.
Gregory XII, who introduced the New Style calendar named after him, born.
Thomas Gresham laid the foundation stone of the first Royal Exchange in London.
Rennie, Scottish civil engineer who built New London Bridge, born.
Earl of Liverpool, British Prime Minister, born.
Bryan 'Beau' Brummell, English dandy, leader of fashion and gambler, born.
Doddridge Blackmore, English novelist of Lorna
Gauguin, French post-Impressionist painter, born.
March Hoe, English-born rotary press inventor who emigrated to the U.S. where he
established his printing company, died.
8th. . .
Prophet Muhammad, founder of Islam, died in Mecca.
the Black Prince, commander in the Hundred Years War, died.
Dampier, English explorer who became a buccaneer, born.
Smeaton, founder of English civil engineering, born.
Stevenson, builder of the Bell Rock lighthouse, the first in Scotland, born.
Paine, English radical who wrote The Rights of Man, died.
Schumann, German composer, born.
John Millais, English painter who was one of the founders of the Pre-Raphaelite
Jackson, 7th U.S. president, died.
Joseph Paxton, English architect who designed the Crystal Palace for the Great
Sand, French novelist, died.
9th. . .
van Eyck, Dutch painter, died.
Church of England adopted The Book of
Common Prayer compiled by Thomas Cranmer.
the Great, Tsar of Russia, born.
Stephenson, English inventor of the first locomotive for a public railway, born.
Nicolai, German composer of the overture, The
Merry Wives of Windsor, born.
Garrett Anderson, English physician who studied privately because she was
refused admittance to medical schools, born.
Dickens, English novelist and author of Oliver
Twist, died of a brain hemorrhage.
Apache chief and leader of the Apache and Navajo wars, died.
took a 99-year lease on Hong Kong from China.
10th. . .
Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor who led the third crusade against Saladin, died.
Edward Stuart, the Old Pretender, born.
first of 19 people (14 women and 5 men) were hanged at Salem at the end of the
I, King of England, died on his way to Hanover.
first public zoo, the Jardin des Plantes, opened in Paris.
Courbet, French painter and leader of the Realist movement, born.
first Oxford and Cambridge boat race took place from Hambledon Lock to Henley
Bridge, and was won by Oxford.
Marie Ampere, French physicist, born.
August Otto, German inventor of the four-stroke internal combustion engine,
first performance of Wagner's Tristan and
Isolde took place in Munich.
11th. . .
Bacon, English natural scientist and philosopher, buried.
III of Scotland was murdered by rebellious Scottish nobles and was succeeded by
his 15-year-old son, James IV.
VIII married for the first time. His
wife was Catharine of Aragon.
Jonson, English poet and playwright, born.
II acceded to the English throne.
Constable, English landscape painter, born.
Continental Congress appointed John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and others to draft
a declaration of independence.
John Franklin, English naval officer and Arctic explorer, died in an attempt to
discover the North-West Passage.
Strauss, German composer of operas such as Salome,
12th. . .
College, Oxford, was founded.
Denys of Montpellier University and personal physician to Louis XIV carried out
a successful blood transfusion using sheep's blood. The patient was a 15-year-old boy.
Augustus Roebling, American engineer and pioneer in the building of suspension
bridges, born in Germany.
Kinsgley, English clergyman and author of The
Water Babies, born.
Doubleday invented baseball at Cooperstown, New York.
Thomas Arnold, English education reformer and headmaster of Rugby school, died.
roof collapsed during a murder trial in France, killing 30 people.
13th. . .
the Great died at the age of 32 following an illness.
Tyler led the first popular rebellion in English history called the Peasant's
Burney, English novelist and diarist who used her observations to write Evaline, born.
Thomas Arnold, English educationalist and reformer of the Public School system
while headmaster of Rugby School, born.
Victoria traveled by train for the first time, from Slough to Paddington.
Yeats, Irish poet and playwright, born.
II, the certified insane King of Bavaria, committed suicide by drowning in the
Starnberger Sea. His psychiatrist,
Bernhard von Gudden, also died while trying to save his life.
first Women's Golf Championship, held at Royal Lytham, was won by Lady Margaret
14th. . .
Parliamentarians defeated the Royalists at the Battle of Naseby,
Johnson's Dictionary went on sale.
U.S. Congress adopted the 'Stars and Stripes' as the official flag.
Battle of Marengo ended with Napoleon defeating the Austrians during the French
Arnold, U.S. soldier and traitor, died in London.
Beecher Stowe, U.S. novelist who wrote Uncle
Tom's Cabin, born.
first Henley Regatta was held.
15th. . .
Magna Carta was sealed by King John at Runnymede.
the Black Prince, eldest son of Edward III, born.
Tyler, English tax rebel, was beheaded at Smithfield.
Franklin flew a kite with a metal frame during a storm as a part of his
experiments with electricity.
foundation stone of the New London Bridge was laid by the Duke of York.
became the 25th state of the Union.
Grieg, Norwegian composer, born.
Goodyear patented his vulcanized rubber process.
49th parallel was established as the border between Canada and the
Nightingale started her School for Nurses at St. Thomas Hospital, London.
III, Emperor of Germany, died.
16th. . .
John Cheke, English classical scholar, tutor of Edward VI, and secretary of
state for Lady Jane Grey, born.
Churchill, first Duke of Marlborough, died.
first stone was laid for the world's largest grain windmill in Holland.
Plucker, German physicist who discovered cathode rays, born.
Queen of Scots, was imprisoned in Scotland's Lochleven Castle.
army defeated Marshal Ney's forces at Quatre-Bras.
candidate Abraham Lincoln made his 'House Divided' speech on slavery in
V, king of Sweden, born.
Sturt, English explorer of Australia, died.
distinctive Salvation Army ladies bonnets were worn for the first time when they
marched in procession in London.
17th. . .
I, King of England, born.
Francis Drake anchored the Golden Hind
just north of the future San Francisco Bay, and named the area New Albion.
Wesley, English evangelist who brought about an evangelical revival in England
and North America, born.
Addison, English poet and essayist, died.
Battle of Bunker Hill took place in the U.S. War of Independence.
Gounod, French composer of Faust,
Macintosh patented the waterproof cloth he would use in raincoats.
Lister amputated a cancerous breast, the first operation under antiseptic
Edward Coley Burne-Jones, English romantic painter, born.
18th. . .
first Life Insurance policy was sold in London, and it was the first to be
Castlereagh, 2nd Marquis of Londonderry and British statesman, born.
combined forces led by Wellington and Blucher defeated Napoleon at the Battle of
Clay Folger, American capitalist and collector, born.
Augustus Sutter, California pioneer and settler and owner of the mill where gold
was discovered, died.
Daladier, French Premier, born.
19th. . .
I, King of England and Scotland, born.
Pascal, French mathematician and philosopher, born.
Combe, English writer of satirical books, died.
Joseph Banks, English explorer and naturalist, died.
Robert Peel established the London Metropolitan Police by an Act of Parliament
passed this day.
first official game of baseball was played at the Elysian Fields, Hoboken, New
Jersey between the New York Nine and the Knickerbocker Club.
1st Earl Haig, British field marshal, born.
Joseph Maximilian, archduke of Austria and emperor of Mexico, was condemned to
death and shot by his opponents.
Wallis Warfield Simpson, Duchess of Winsdor, born.
20th. . .
Barents, Dutch explorer, died in the Arctic searching for the north-east passage
from Europe to Asia.
146 captured defenders of the British garrison in Calcutta were incarcerated in
a cell less than 18-feet square, which came to be known as the Black Hole.
Only 23 survived the night.
Offenbach, French composer, born. ALSO--The
paddle-wheel steamship Savannah
arrived at Liverpool after a voyage lasting 27 days 11 hours, the first
steamship to cross the Atlantic.
IV, British king, died. Queen Victoria, just 18 years old, ascended to the throne.
Virginia became the 35th state of the Union.
Bill Cody staged a Royal Command performance of his Wild West Show for Queen
Victoria's Golden Jubilee.
longest railway bridge over the River Tay opened.
The first had collapsed in 1879.
21st. . .
IX, the pope who brought the conflict between Rome and the eastern church, born.
III, King of England, died.
Machiavelli, Italian writer and statesman, died.
Jones, English architect and designer, died.
began to rebuild St. Paul's Cathedral in London by Sir Christopher Wren after
the original was destroyed in the Great Fire.
U.S. Constitution came into force. ALSO, New Hampshire became the ninth state of
Royal College of Surgeons was founded from the original Barber-Surgeons Company.
Froebel, German educationalist and founder of the kindergarten system, died.
first Victorian Cross was awarded to Charles Lucas, an Irishman aboard the HMS Hecla for conspicuous gallantry.
Anna, Mexican revolutionary, died in poverty.
ALSO, the first gorilla arrived in Britain.
22nd. . .
II ascended to the English throne.
Hudson, English navigator, was cast adrift with some of his crew after a mutiny
in the bay that bears his name. It
was the last time they were seen alive.
rebellion of the Scottish Covenanters was put down by the Duke of Monmouth at
the Battle of Bothwell Bridge.
Vancouver, explorer who carried out surveys of North America, born.
Mazzini, Italian thinker and writer, born.
first match at the new Lord's cricket ground was played.
Leschetizky, Polish pianist and renowned teacher, born.
H. Rider Haggard, English writer of King
Solomon's Mines, born.
23rd. . .
de Mendoza, Spanish explorer, died.
Fell, bishop of Oxford, born.
Penn signed a peace treaty with the Indians.
troops overthrew the Nawab of Bengal, preparing the way for the British Empire
Josephine, Napoleon's first wife, born on the island of Martinque.
Hester Lucy Stanhope, English traveler in the Middle East, died in poverty as a
result of her excessive generosity.
Sax was awarded a patent for the saxophone.
Duke of Windsor who would abdicate the English throne, born.
24th. . .
Roman emperor, died.
the Bruce defeated the English troops at the Battle of Bannockburn.
VIII's coronation took place.
Borgia, Duchess of Ferrara, died.
Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, English general, born.
Grand Lodge of English Freemasons was formed in London.
Irenee Du Pont, American powder manufacturer, born in France.
Smith, English news agent and bookseller, born.
Herbert, Earl Kitchener, British field marshal, born.
Bierce, American journalist and short-story writer, born.
Durant, while traveling through war-torn Italy, was inspired to form the Red
25th. . .
Rivers and Lord Richard Grey, uncle and stepbrother to Edward V, were executed
by order of Richard III, who had also deposed his nephew.
became the tenth state of the Union.
Nelson was wounded during battle off Santa Cruz and his arm was amputated that
Erskine Childers, Irish author and nationalist, born.
wire was patented by Lucien B. Smith of Kent, Ohio.
last stand took place at Little Bighorn, Montana when the Sioux Indians killed
Colonel George Custer and all 264 soldiers of his 7th Cavalry.
June 26th. . .
the Apostate, Roman emperor, died of wounds inflicted in battle with the
Pizarro, conqueror of Peru, was assassinated by rivals in Lima.
Merrier, French astronomer, born.
Michel Mongolfier, French pioneer balloonist, died.
IV, King of England, died. His
brother, William VI ascended the throne.
Crompton, English inventor of the spinning mule, died.
Joseph Rouget de Lisle, author and composer, died.
first investiture ceremony of Victoria Crosses took place at Hyde Park. Sixty-two service men received the honor.
Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, Irish physicist and inventor, born.
27th. . .
XII, King of France, born.
IX, King of France during the Wars of Religion, who ordered the Massacre of the
Ladies' Mercury, the first magazine for women, was published.
last British King to lead his troops into battle was George II this day when he
led the Pragmatic Army into the Battle of Dettingen.
1st Viscount Hood, English admiral, died.
Lewis Macie Smithson, English scientist and founder of the Smithsonian
Institute, Washington DC, died in Genoa.
Smith, founder of the Mormons, was murdered by mobs.
Stewart Parnell, Irish nationalist leader, born.
Adams Keller, U.S. blind, deaf and mute scholar and teacher, born.
28th. . .
VIII, King of England who married six times and beheaded two wives, born.
Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish artist, born.
Wesley, English evangelical preacher and founder of Methodism, born.
Jacques Rousseau, French philosopher, born in Geneva.
Madison, fourth U.S. president, died.
1838--Queen Victoria's coronation took place in Westminster Abbey.
She was 19 years old.
ballet Giselle opened in Paris.
O'Hara Burke, Australian explorer, died.
Pirandello, Italian dramatist and novelist, born.
Carrel, French experimental biologist, born.
29th. . .
Caesar defeated Pompey at Pharsalus to become the absolute ruler of Rome.
a performance of Henry VIII at the
Globe Theatre, a cannon was set off to announce the King.
It accidentally set fire to the thatched gallery roof.
The theatre was totally destroyed.
Giacomo Leopardi, Italian poet, born.
first census in Britain was carried out revealing a population of 8,872,000.
first policeman to be murdered in Britain was Constable William Grantham in
Somers Town trying to break up a fight.
Sun, in honor of Queen Victoria's coronation the previous day,
printed its entire issue in gold ink.
first edition of London's Daily Telegraph
Barrett Browning, English poet, died.
Press Association was founded in London.
James Mayo, surgeon and co-founder of the Mayo Clinic, born.
30th. . .
II, last Aztec emperor, died.
Oughtred, English mathematician and inventor of the slide rule, died.
Gay, English poet and playwright of Beggar's
by pillory was finally abolished in Britain.
walker, Blondin, crossed Niagara Falls from the U.S. to Canada in just eight
minutes, a distance of 1,100 feet.
granted Yosemite Valley and Mariposa Big Tree Grove to California for a public
South Africa's Orange Free State, the finder of a 971.75 carat diamond was
awarded 500 pounds sterling plus a horse with bridle and saddle.
Stanley Spencer, English artist, born.
James Gunn, Scottish painter, born.